I am a PhD candidate in Health Economics at Stanford University. Before Stanford, I have extensive experience in the healthcare industry starting as a McKinsey consultant, and most recently as Senior Vice President of Market Strategy with Optum/UnitedHealth before joining academia. I received my MPH in Health Policy from Harvard University.

Health Economics, Market Design, Experimental and Behavioral Economics, Economics of Discrimination and Diversity, Labor Economics


Laurence C Baker (co-P)


Alvin E Roth (co-P)

Michelle Mello

Muriel Niederle (co-P)

Working Paper

This paper provides evidence that customer discrimination in the market for doctors can be largely accounted for by inaccurate statistical discrimination. I evaluate customer preferences in the field with an online platform where cash-paying consumers can shop and book a provider for medical procedures based on a novel experimental paradigm called validated incentivized conjoint analysis (VIC). Customers evaluate doctor options they know to be hypothetical to be matched with a customized menu of real doctors, preserving incentives. Racial discrimination reduces patient willingness-to-pay for black and Asian doctors by 12.7% and 8.7% of the average colonoscopy price respectively; customers are willing to travel 100–250 miles to see a white doctor instead of a black doctor, and somewhere between 50–100 to 100–250 miles to see a white doctor instead of an Asian doctor. Further, providing signals of doctor quality reduces this willingness-to-pay racial gap by about 90%, which suggests that statistical discrimination is an important cause of the gap. The willingness-to-pay penalties on minority doctors are multiples of actual average quality differences, which suggest that inaccurate or behavioral statistical discrimination is at play. Actual booking behavior allows cross-validation of incentive compatibility of stated preference elicitation via VIC. 


2021, New England Journal of Medicine 385: 766-768

2020, JAMA 323(3): 278-279

With Kevin Schulman

2020, JAMA Health Forum 1(3): e200291

(1st author) With Isabel Chien, Edward Moseley, Saad Salman, Sarah Kaminer Bourland, Daniela Lamas, Anne M Walling, James A Tulsky, Charlotta Lindvall

2019, Palliative Medicine 33(2): 187-196

Other Working Papers

With Alvin E. Roth (submitted)

2021, Stanford Health Policy Working Paper

Implementation of liver exchange using algorithm from this paper (in progress): Liver Exchange: A Pathway to Increase Access to Transplantation

Works in Progress

Emergency Care by Female Doctors and Reduced Mortality

Why Can You Buy a Body but Not a Kidney? An Experiment on Repugnance Conveyance

With Kurt Sweat


BIOS 203: Market Design and Field Experiments for Health Policy and Medicine

Fall 2021, Stanford University, Primary Instructor

Teaching evaluation: 5.0 out of 5.0

HPM 206: Economic Analysis

Fall 2017, Harvard University, Head Teaching Assistant

Teaching evaluation: 4.7 out of 5.0